The study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of Paliavana tenuiflora Mansf., an endemic Brazilian species that belongs to Gesneriaceae family. By chromatographic, spectroscopic and cheminformatics techniques it was possible to isolate and elucidate eleven compounds: a new naphthoquinone named as tenuiflorone (1), besides known compounds 7-metoxy-8-hydroxy-α-dunnione (2), tectoquinone (3), 2-(p-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl hexacosanoate (4), 2-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl) ethyl hexacosanoate (5), caffeic acid (6), presilphiperfolan-9-ol (7), β-sitosterol (8), stigmasterol (9), β-sitosterol-3-O–d-glucopyranoside (10) and stigmasterol-3-O–d-glucopyranoside (11). This is the first time that secondary metabolites were isolated from species belonging to Paliavana genus, with the isolation of a new naphthoquinone named as tenuiflorone. The results obtained contribute to the chemotaxonomy of the Gesneriaceae family.
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