Sinningia bullata is a tuberous member of the flowering plant family Gesneriaceae. Prior to this work, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of S. bullata were undetermined. Here, we prepared different extracts from the leaf, stem, and tuber of S. bullata and investigated their pharmacological activities. The leaf extract of S. bullata, obtained by 100% acetone (Sb-L-A), had the highest total flavonoid content, antioxidation capacity, and cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Sb-L-A displayed a broad range of antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The inhibition zones of Sb-L-A ranged from 8 to 30 mm and were in the following order: S. aureus > E. coli > P. aeruginosa. Incubation of B16F10 melanoma cells with Sb-L-A at a concentration of 80 μg/mL caused deaths at the rate of 96%, reduced migration by 100%, suppressed proliferation and colony formation by 99%, and induced apoptosis, which was observed in 96% of the B16F10 cells. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of Sb-L-A were synergistically enhanced when coacting with the antitumor drug epothilone B. Sb-L-A was also used to determine the cytotoxic effects against 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. Sb-L-A of 60 μg/mL boosted the distribution of the G2 phase from 1.4% to 24.4% in the B16F10 cells. Accordingly, Sb-L-A might suppress melanoma cell proliferation by inducing G2 cell-cycle arrest. The most abundant compounds in Sb-L-A were identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The top two contents in this extract were adlupulone and villosin. Overall, the collective data in this study may indicate the pharmacological potentials of Sb-L-A for possible medical applications.
Cytotoxic, Antibacterial, and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Extract of Sinningia bullata