Floral organogenesis of Titanotrichum oldhamii (Hemsl.) Soler., the only species in the genus and endemic to East Asia, was observed under SEM. We found that the development of calyx, corolla and androecium belongs to pentamerous pattern. They come respectively from primordia of calyx, corolla and androecium, and all differentiated from the flower primordium. The zygomorphism of corolla and androecium is derived from quicker growth of the upper lip of corolla and delay in development of the staminode. Initiation of sepal primordia and their development are not consistent in order; the order of initiation is from adaxial central primordium, abaxial two primordia and finally lateral two primordia, while the order of development is first adaxial central sepal, lateral two and finally abaxial two. Sepals are valvate in flower bud. Initiation of corolla lobe primordia and their development are consistent in order, i.e. first abaxial central lobe (central lobe of the lower lip), lateral two (lateral two lobes of the lower lip) and finally adaxial two (two lobes of the upper lip). The aestivation of corolla is imbricate, and the order from outside to inside is the central lobe of the lower lip, lateral two of the lower lip, and finally two of the upper lip or lateral two lobes of the lower lip, two of the upper lip and central one of the lower lip. Stamen primordia are alternate to the corolla lobe primordia, with the anterior two primordia later than the posterior two in initiation; staminode primordium is simultaneous with the posterior two in initiation, but smaller, and opposite to the adaxial carpel (upper lip of stigma). Compared to the patterns of floral organogenesis of Rehmannia (Scrophulariaceae), Whytockia and Rhynchoglossum (Gesneriaceae), the present authors found that the floral organogenesis is diverse and does not form two distinct patterns among these four genera. Based on the results we tend to consider that the conventional demarcation between the Scrophulariaceae and Gesneriaceae using number of ovary locules (two vs one) and placentation (axile vs parietal) is questionable.
Floral organogenesis of Titanotrichum oldhamii (Gesneriaceae)
Publication: Acta Botanica Sinica